Mars

This elongated depression is about 78 km in length, opens from just under 10 km wide at one end to 25 km wide at the other, and reaches a depth of 2 km. It is located at about 21°S / 55°E, and was probably caused by the impact of a train of projectiles. The data were acquired during orbit 8433 on 4 August 2010 using the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
The scars of impacts on Mars
This elongated depression is about 78 km in length, opens from just under 10 km wide at one end to 25 km wide at the other, and reaches a depth of 2 km. It is located at about 21°S / 55°E, and was probably caused by the impact of a train of projectiles. The data were acquired during orbit 8433 on 4 August 2010 using the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
The scars of impacts on Mars
This elongated depression is about 78 km in length, opens from just under 10 km wide at one end to 25 km wide at the other, and reaches a depth of 2 km. It is located at about 21°S / 55°E, and was probably caused by the impact of a train of projectiles. The data were acquired during orbit 8433 on 4 August 2010 using the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
The scars of impacts on Mars
This image was taken on 15 July 2010 by the High-Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express. The scene shows a small part of the northwestern area of the Schiaparelli basin with the crater rim, the crater interior and parts of the surrounding highlands. Evidence for water can be seen in the form of dark sediments that appear on the floor of Schiaparelli, resembling those deposited by evaporated lakes on Earth.

The interior of Schiaparelli has been modified by multiple geological processes, including the fall of ejecta blasted upwards by the initial impact, flows of lava to create the smooth plains, and watery sediments. Also in the crater floor, smaller impact craters have been partially flooded and filled. The sediments forming the smooth plains have been modified by erosion, either by wind, water or both to form sharp contours such as the skinny plateau at bottom left. In other places, material has been deposited by the wind to form hills and dunes. The prominent crater 3 is 42 km across and rests on the inner rim of Schiaparelli. The interior of the smaller crater is filled with sediments that appear to form a terrace in the northern part and a delta-like structure near the centre. The latter seems to be partially composed of rounded light-coloured mounds. Dark wind-borne material has accumulated in the southern portion of the crater.

Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Schiaparelli in perspective
This image was taken on 15 July 2010 by the High-Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express. The scene shows a small part of the northwestern area of the Schiaparelli basin with the crater rim, the crater interior and parts of the surrounding highlands. Evidence for water can be seen in the form of dark sediments that appear on the floor of Schiaparelli, resembling those deposited by evaporated lakes on Earth.

The interior of Schiaparelli has been modified by multiple geological processes, including the fall of ejecta blasted upwards by the initial impact, flows of lava to create the smooth plains, and watery sediments. Also in the crater floor, smaller impact craters have been partially flooded and filled. The sediments forming the smooth plains have been modified by erosion, either by wind, water or both to form sharp contours such as the skinny plateau at bottom left. In other places, material has been deposited by the wind to form hills and dunes. The prominent crater 3 is 42 km across and rests on the inner rim of Schiaparelli. The interior of the smaller crater is filled with sediments that appear to form a terrace in the northern part and a delta-like structure near the centre. The latter seems to be partially composed of rounded light-coloured mounds. Dark wind-borne material has accumulated in the southern portion of the crater.

Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Schiaparelli in perspective
This image was taken on 15 July 2010 by the High-Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express. The scene shows a small part of the northwestern area of the Schiaparelli basin with the crater rim, the crater interior and parts of the surrounding highlands. Evidence for water can be seen in the form of dark sediments that appear on the floor of Schiaparelli, resembling those deposited by evaporated lakes on Earth.

The interior of Schiaparelli has been modified by multiple geological processes, including the fall of ejecta blasted upwards by the initial impact, flows of lava to create the smooth plains, and watery sediments. Also in the crater floor, smaller impact craters have been partially flooded and filled. The sediments forming the smooth plains have been modified by erosion, either by wind, water or both to form sharp contours such as the skinny plateau at bottom left. In other places, material has been deposited by the wind to form hills and dunes. The prominent crater 3 is 42 km across and rests on the inner rim of Schiaparelli. The interior of the smaller crater is filled with sediments that appear to form a terrace in the northern part and a delta-like structure near the centre. The latter seems to be partially composed of rounded light-coloured mounds. Dark wind-borne material has accumulated in the southern portion of the crater.

Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Schiaparelli on Mars
In Ares Vallis, teardrop mesas extend like pennants behind impact craters, where the raised rocky rims diverted the floods and protected the ground from erosion. Scientists estimate the floods had peak volumes many times the flow of today's Mississippi River. This image was taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 15.9° north latitude, 330° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Ares Vallis
Fans and ribbons of dark sand dunes creep across the floor of Bunge Crater in response to winds blowing from the direction at the top of the picture. The frame is about 14 kilometers (9 miles) wide. This image was taken in January 2006 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 33.8° south latitude, 311.4° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Bunge Crater Dunes
West of Valles Marineris lies a checkerboard named Noctis Labyrinthus, which formed when the Martian crust stretched and fractured. As faults opened, they released subsurface ice and water, causing the ground to collapse. This westward view combines images taken during the period from April 2003 to September 2005 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 13.3° south latitude, 263.4° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Noctis Vista
A false-color mosaic focuses on one junction in Noctis Labyrinthus where canyons meet to form a depression 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) deep. Dust (blue tints) lies on the upper surfaces, while rockier material (warmer colors) lies below. The pictures used to create this mosaic image were taken from April 2003 to September 2005 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is approximately 13° south latitude, 260° east longitude.  Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Noctis Canyon
Although it is 45 kilometers (28 miles) wide, countless layers of ice and dust have all but buried Udzha Crater. Udzha lies near the edge of the northern polar cap, and only the topmost edges of its crater rim rise above the polar deposits to hint at its circular shape. The image was taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 81.8° north latitude, 77.2° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Udzha Crater
Sand dunes shaped like blue-black flames lie next to a central hill within an unnamed, 120-kilometer-wide (75-mile-wide) crater in eastern Arabia on Mars. False colors depict the nature of the ground surface: Areas in bluish tints have more fine sand at the surface, while redder tints indicate harder sediments and outcrops of rock. This scene combines images taken during the period from February 2003 to August 2004 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 26.7° north latitude, 63° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Arabia Dunes
Chasma Boreale is a long, flat-floored valley that cuts deep into Mars' north polar icecap. Its walls rise about 1,400 meters (4,600 feet) above the floor. Where the edge of the ice cap has retreated, sheets of sand are emerging that accumulated during earlier ice-free climatic cycles. Winds blowing off the ice have pushed loose sand into dunes and driven them down-canyon in a westward direction, toward our viewpoint. This scene combines images taken during the period from December 2002 to February 2005 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 84.9° north latitude, 359.1° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Chasma Boreale
If a meteorite breaks in two shortly before hitting the ground, the typical bowl shape of a single impact crater becomes doubled. The two circular blast regions intersect, creating a straight wall separating the two craters. At the same time,
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Dual Crater
A vast dune field lies near the northern polar cap of Mars. Seen here in summer, the dunes have partially buried an impact crater about 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) wide. This image was taken in August 2010 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 79.1° north latitude, 245.5° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Dunes Engulf Crater
A sea of dark dunes, sculpted by the wind into long lines, surrounds the northern polar cap covering an area as big as Texas. In this false-color image, areas with cooler temperatures are recorded in bluer tints, while warmer features are depicted in yellows and oranges. Thus, the dark, sun-warmed dunes glow with a golden color. This image covers an area 30 kilometers (19 miles) wide. This scene combines images taken during the period from December 2002 to November 2004 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 80.3° north latitude, 172.1° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Polar Dunes
Although this may look like a hostile alien life form, it's actually a complex line of sand dunes near the northern ice cap of Mars. The image covers an area about 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide. It was taken in April 2006 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 82.4° north latitude, 314.5° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Reptilian Dunes
Bacolor Crater is a magnificent impact feature about 20 kilometers (12 miles) wide. The lines on the ejecta blanket surrounding the crater rim come from a surge of superheated gas and debris flying outward in the wake of the meteorite impact that made the crater. This view combines images taken during the period from September 2002 to October 2005 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is 33° north latitude, 118.6° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Bacolor Crater
Geological faulting has opened cracks in the Cerberus region that slice through flat plains and mesas alike. This view covers an area 57 kilometers (35 miles) wide. It combines images taken during the period from May 2002 to July 2004 by the Thermal Emission Imaging System instrument on Mars Odyssey. The pictured location on Mars is approximately 15° north latitude, 170° east longitude. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU
 
 
Mars Odyssey All Stars: Cerberus Crack
Orcus Patera is an enigmatic elliptical depression located between the volcanoes of Elysium Mons and Olympus Mons. This well-defined depression extends approximately 380 km by 140 km in a NNE–SSW direction. It has a rim that rises up to 1800 m above the surrounding plains, while the floor of the depression lies 400–600 m below the surroundings. The straight graben that cut across its rim are clearly seen in this image.

Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Mysterious Elongated Crater
Orcus Patera is an enigmatic elliptical depression located between the volcanoes of Elysium Mons and Olympus Mons. This well-defined depression extends approximately 380 km by 140 km in a NNE–SSW direction. It has a rim that rises up to 1800 m above the surrounding plains, while the floor of the depression lies 400–600 m below the surroundings.

Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Mysterious Elongated Crater
Orcus Patera is an enigmatic elliptical depression located between the volcanoes of Elysium Mons and Olympus Mons. This well-defined depression extends approximately 380 km by 140 km in a NNE–SSW direction. It has a rim that rises up to 1800 m above the surrounding plains, while the floor of the depression lies 400–600 m below the surroundings. The term ‘patera’ is used for deep, complex or irregularly shaped volcanic craters such as the Hadriaca Patera and Tyrrhena Patera at the north-eastern margin of the Hellas impact basin. However, despite its name and the fact that it is positioned near volcanoes, the actual origin of Orcus Patera remains unclear.

Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Mysterious Elongated Crater
Deep valleys dominate this section of the Magellan Crater on Mars. They may have been created by the enormous stresses places on the planet's crust by the upsurge of the Tharsis region. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Rocky mounds and a plateau on Mars
Looking towards Magellan Crater across the smooth plateau and the rock mounds of the region. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Rocky mounds and a plateau on Mars
Meridiani Planum, at the northern edge of the southern highlands of Mars, lies between the volcanic Tharsis Region to the west and the low-lying Hellas Planitia impact basin to the south-east. Through a telescope, Meridiani Planum is a striking, dark feature, close to the martian equator. It extends 127 km by 63 km and covers an area of roughly 8000 sq km, about the size of Cyprus. This dark material probably resembles volcanic ash, which is predominantly composed of minerals such as pyroxene and olivine. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Volcanic ash in Meridiani Planum
Meridiani Planum, at the northern edge of the southern highlands of Mars, lies between the volcanic Tharsis Region to the west and the low-lying Hellas Planitia impact basin to the south-east. Through a telescope, Meridiani Planum is a striking, dark feature, close to the martian equator. It extends 127 km by 63 km and covers an area of roughly 8000 sq km, about the size of Cyprus. This dark material probably resembles volcanic ash, which is predominantly composed of minerals such as pyroxene and olivine. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Volcanic ash in Meridiani Planum
Meridiani Planum, at the northern edge of the southern highlands of Mars, lies between the volcanic Tharsis Region to the west and the low-lying Hellas Planitia impact basin to the south-east. Through a telescope, Meridiani Planum is a striking, dark feature, close to the martian equator. It extends 127 km by 63 km and covers an area of roughly 8000 sq km, about the size of Cyprus. This dark material probably resembles volcanic ash, which is predominantly composed of minerals such as pyroxene and olivine. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Volcanic ash in Meridiani Planum
The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard the ESA spacecraft Mars Express took this image of the Phobos Grunt landing area using the HRSC nadir channel on 7 March 2010, HRSC Orbit 7915. The image resolution is 4.4m per pixel and the insert marks the proposed landing region and sites for Phobos-Grunt. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Phobos 7 March 2010 flyby image
The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard the ESA spacecraft Mars Express took this image of Phobos using the HRSC nadir channel on 7 March 2010, HRSC Orbit 7915. This image has additionally been enhanced photometrically for better bringing features in the less illuminated part. Resolution: about 4.4 meters per pixel. Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Phobos 7 March 2010 flyby image
Kasei Valles and Sacra Fossae, in perspective.

Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
 
 
Kasei Valles and Sacra Fossae
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